The Mittelbau concentration camp was the last main camp created by the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA) and the only one not named after a specific place. It officially came to being on October 28, 1944, but its origins stretched back to the foundings of a subcamp of Buchenwald, code-named "Dora" on August 28, 1943.
In a system of 27 subcamps attached to Dora, most of the prisoners worked in the construction of underground and aboveground facilities, the most known a conversion of tunnels into an underground V-2 factory called Mittelwerk. About 6,000 of the 40,000 inmates were directly working at the production lines of building actual V-2 rockets, at a speed of approximately 20 ballistic missiles per day.
During the last phase of Mittelbau's existence, large numbers of starving and severely ill prisoners started arriving from Auschwitz and Gross-Rosen, which had been evacuated shortly before. This marked a significant change in the death toll of the camp; the influx was so high that the arriving new prisoners could not even be registered, and the crematoria could not handle the dead. Prisoners were sent elsewhere on transports and death marches, which only worsened the problem.
About 20,000 people died at Mittelbau during its existence. On April 11, 1945, elements of the U.S. 3rd Armored and 104th Infantry Divisions reached Boelcke-Kaserne and shortly thereafter discovered the Mittelwerk tunnels and Dora. Operation Paperclip (the operation to exploit German science and technology) had its origins here when the U.S. forces were able to capture and remove large numbers of missile parts and personnel.
Mittelbau-Dora is part of a series of journeys that I'm undertaking to photograph the blue skies precisely above the (last known) location of every single one of the 1,075 concentration camps that have ever existed, as part of an photography/book/installation project called The Blue Skies Project. The project has proven quite immense and almost impossible to hold on to single-handedly – with staggering logistics to match – but I'm hanging in there.